American Studies 201

US impact on Native Sovereignty: Standing Rock as a Case Study

In January 2016, the company Dakota Access announced that it had received permits from the North Dakota Public Service Commission to build a pipeline to transport crude oil from North Dakota to Illinois. The proposed route cut directly across the Missouri River downstream of Bismarck, but half a mile upstream from the Standing Rock Indian Reservation and their main water source, Lake Oahe[1] (Figure 1). This meant that if a spill happened, oil would travel downriver into the water reserves of the Reservation. Meanwhile, the mostly-white city of Bismarck was spared. The entire DAPL (Dakota Access Pipeline) process can be viewed as only the most recent event in a long history of the United States of America disregarding Native rights and tribal sovereignty in favor of pursuing their own end goal. 

Text Box: Figure 1: The original and revised routes of the pipeline.

Native resistance began almost immediately, in the form of signing petitions urging the Army Corps of Engineers to halt the project[2]. Instead, the Corps gave the pipeline the final permits needed to begin construction, after they reported that the pipeline would have “No significant environmental or cultural impacts” on the surrounding area[3]. The Standing Rock Sioux Immediately took the Army Corps of Engineers to court on multiple counts of violation of federal laws such as the National Environmental Protection Act, the National Historic Preservation Act, and the 1851 Treaty of Laramie[4]. Chairman Archambault of the Standing Rock Sioux noted that the Army Corps of Engineers had “turned a blind eye to our (native) rights”. Many native residents also protested the desecration of their sacred river, a violation of their right to freedom of religion, and that the construction of this project would destroy sacred and protected sites[5]. While the litigation round its way through the judicial system, protesting at the proposed construction site began. Native people were upset that their voices weren’t being heard on an issue that would have direct and serious consequences on their lives[6]. “To poison the water is to poison the substance of life,” said Chairman Archaumbalt, and he reflects the commonly held belief of many indigenous people that to poison the water supply is to poison themselves[7]. “Water is the first gift of life from the Creator. We have a continuing right to the water” said Phyllis Young, reinforcing the native argument that they have a right to their water, and that right should not be up for grabs by the US government[8]

The protests are generally known to have started in April; by August, there were almost 3,000 protestors at camps near the pipeline[9]. Protestors said the camps, which were full of native members of other tribes and allies, many of whom had traveled long distances to support the cause, felt “like a community” that was standing with the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe[10]. Despite brutal attacks by police, the camps continued, and the number of protectors grew. Inside the camps, there were sacred areas for meetings, prayers, and spiritual ceremonies next to tents and port-a-pots[11]. These spaces represented the constant indigenous pushback against forced assimilation; they hold onto their beliefs and traditions as a form of resistance. This was a protest movement deeply rooted in history and faith, but also demanding action today to remedy current injustices. Protests also erupted nationwide in support of Standing Rock’s claim to its own land, which native people like Phyllis Young, a member of the Standing Rock Sioux, says was never ceded to the US government and as such they have no right to build on it[12]. The movement even spread internationally, as the message of Standing Rock resonated with people around the world[13]. Despite this incredible outpouring of support, not just from regular citizens, but from the EPA, judges that ruled in Standing Rocks favor, and even President Obama, who temporarily halted construction, the Dakota Access Pipeline was constructed in April 2017[14]. It has already spilled 200,000 gallons of crude oil into the surrounding ecosystem[15]. Why did the system fail the Standing Rock Sioux? 

Unfortunately, the system has failed them many, many times. In 1868, after the failure of the first one in 1851, a second Treaty of Fort Laramie was enacted and gave the Great Sioux Reservation 60 million acres[16]. However, in 1874, reports by General Custer of gold on this land created the Black Hills Gold Rush, in which thousands of prospectors and miners looking to get rich quick trespassed onto Native lands. By 1877, the Sioux had been forced into handing over the Black Hills to the US government, and Congress ratified it, despite native protests it had been signed under duress[17]. In addition, white settlers had been killing bison in huge quantities. They did this to deprive the Plains Indians of their primary food source, with an end goal of Indian submission[18]. Life on reservations, of which the Native Americans had been forced onto, was hard and traumatic; when a drought hit in 1890, the people now had even less food and became desperate, relying on the US government for survival. The meager US rations weren’t enough, and many tribal members decided to escape. All of these factors came to a head on December 29, 1890, at what is known today as the Massacre of Wounded Knee. This slaughter occurred when the US Army had intercepted a large band of Lakota Sioux who were trying to leave their reservation and venture into the Badlands. When the Lakota’s began performing a religious ceremony known as the “Ghost Dance”, the American troops opened fire, misinterpreting the dance as an attack. When the dust settled, almost 300 Lakota Sioux had been murdered, many of them women and children[19].

 Today, the descendants of these people still live on reservations, and they remember all the times when the American agenda took precedence over the rights of indigenous people[20].

These incidents and tragedies exemplify the US Governments relationship with the Sioux Nation. Native sovereignty has been discussed at length, because the concept has evolved over time. Tribes have been seen as “domestic dependent nations” and having to “trust” that the federal government will do right by them. Tribes have a separate status based on their “sovereignty,” but they derive authority to exercise this status from the federal government, so their sovereignty is actually conditional in practice. Much of their power in decision making actually lies in the hands of the federal government[21]. Therefore, native nations legally are sovereign entities with all the rights that entails, but in practice they actually have less power than states, because they have no Constitutional protections. This has led to their existence today as “quasi-states”, a position that leaves them vulnerable to the whims of the federal government, and one that has only served to weaken their ability to have authority over their own land[22].

In the 1800’s, Despite existing treaties, which legally marked the Great Sioux reservation as a Sovereign Nation with authority over its territory, white settlers continued to disregard this and trespass onto native land to access coveted resources like gold. The government held the white settlers in higher regard than the Sioux and ignored the land claims they had agreed upon in favor of increasing white profits. This was facilitated by the limited legal power native nations had to actually enforce their own authority on their own lamd. The senseless massacre at Wounded Knee reinforces the notion that those in the US government who were interacting with the Native nations saw them as lesser and savage, people to be feared rather than understood. These racist undertones again come into play today, underscoring decisions made regarding Standing Rock. The local government, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the Dakota Access Corporation didn’t view the Standing Rock Sioux tribe as equals, who should have a say in decisions that directly impact them. Instead they viewed them as inferiors, people to pass over in the name of technological and economic progress[23]. The descendants of the white settlers had again decided that the wellbeing Native Americans, who they viewed as inferior to them, was not worth as much as the profit they could gain from Native exploitation. 

The Dakota Access Pipeline is expected to create huge profits, not just for its company and investors, but also for the states that it passes through, collected through tax revenue. Calculations show that the pipeline should gross Energy Transfer Partners, the company that owns Dakota Access, $1.37 billion per year[24].  The pipeline only needs 40 full-time employees to operate it along its entirety, although the company’s website boasts that it employed 8,000-12,000 workers during construction[25]. This means that the company will not have to pay many salaries, and their profits will increase, allowing them to put more money into the pockets of their many shareholders and investors[26]. One of these investors happens to be President Donald J. Trump, the very man who signed an executive order permitting construction on the pipeline on his second day in office. Trump has hundreds of thousands invested in Phillips 66, a company that owns a quarter share of Energy Transfer Partners[27]. Trumps’ own financial disclosure forms show his interest in seeing the pipeline become operational (Figure 2).

Text Box: Figure 2: Trump's Financial Disclosure form.

The state and local governments also had a monetary interest in the pipeline being constructed. North Dakota alone has been estimated to gain almost $140 million in tax dollars every two years from revenue produced by Dakota Access[28]. So, it stands to reason that state and local officials would welcome an increase in revenue, and therefore support the pipeline. The powerful people making the decisions regarding the Dakota Access Pipeline and the Standing Rock Reservation had been compromised in their ability to justly carry out the law by the economic incentive the project offered up. The water protectors are aware of the cards stacked against them; an article published in the News from Indian Country notes the coincidence that the same president who signed the expedition for construction also happens to benefit financially from that same project[29].

By ignoring native voices and protests, the US government created a situation that ensured that the pipeline will cause tremendous environmental harm that will disproportionately affect Native nations. Pipelines leak. On average, 200 barrels of oil are spilled everyday[30]. Dakota Access assures that their pipeline is “one of the safest, most technologically advanced pipelines in the world” and that “safety is (their) top priority”[31]. However, after only six months in operation, the Dakota Access pipeline had leaked five times[32]. When pipelines leak, they spill oil into surrounding ecosystems and disrupt life. The average pipeline also has a 57% chance of leaking[33]. “If the river (the Missouri) is polluted, how can people survive,” said Carole Eastman Standing Elk, a member of the Santee Dakota group[34]. The indigenous existence of the

Northeastern Plains has always been tied to the water; their way of life cannot exist without direct access to it. Native protestors knew this and made a point of emphasizing the environmental cost the pipeline would have on them and their surrounding land. “Mni Waconi,” their signs read, “Water is Life”[35].

 Text Box: Figure 3: Protests in front of the White House.

Traditionally, Native sustenance is more subsistence based, drawing directly on surrounding natural resources to provide food and goods. Even today, many Native Americans derive their food from fishing, hunting, and farming. An oil spill from Dakota Access, even a small one, will directly result in the poisoning of the Standing Rock Sioux[36]. The oil will flow downriver, where it will poison the Reservation’s water supply at Lake Oahe. The area surrounding the lake is a wetland, which are natural groundwater filters. By introducing oil into this equation, oil is now in the ground and the plants that soak it up. It is passed up to the animals that eat the plants and drink the water, and eventually it enters the people as they drink the water from Lake Oahe and eat the animals they caught on the reservation. Fish have started coming out of the Missouri river with tumors, likely caused by the oil[37]. The equation of the pipeline with poison has been made very clear by Standing Rock protestors in their signs and slogans used in demonstrations, like the phrase “we can’t drink oil!”[38].

 Text Box: Figure 4:"We can't drink oil" protest sign

The environmental impacts will be acutely felt by native communities, and the ecosystems they survive off of. The United States has created a system of conditional sovereignty, wherein native nations must go through the federal government to accomplish many tasks, and they lack basic Constitutional protections given to states. What should’ve been their legal authority over anything regarding their people or their land was passed over to create the biggest oil profits imaginable, at the expense of those who will be hurt the worst. Tribal nations are more vulnerable to shifts in climate, and in politics, and this situation has hit them hard in both areas. By allowing the Dakota Access Pipeline to be built, the United States Government violated the Standing Rock Sioux’s authority, an occurrence that has repeated throughout US history. 

Bibliography 

Bajak, Aleszu. “Contextualizing the Dakota Access Pipeline: A Roundup of Visualizations.” Storybench, Northeastern University , 26 Apr. 2017, www.storybench.org/contextualizing-dakota-access-pipeline-roundup-visualizations/.

Bender, Albert. 2016. “Standing Rock Organizer Speaks Out.” News from Indian Country, 09, 2. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1824544484?accountid=12299.

“Black Hills Gold Rush .” Newberry Library: Lewis and Clark Exhibit, publications.newberry.org/lewisandclark/newnation/miners/blackhills.html.

Bowsell, Tom. 2016. “At Standing Rock for Mother Earth.” News from Indian Country, 12, 11-11,14. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1856560465?accountid=12299.

Brown , Alleen. “Five Spills, Six Months in Operation: Dakota Access Track Record Highlights Unavoidable Reality – Pipelines Leak.” The Intercept, First Look Media , 9 Jan. 2018, theintercept.com/2018/01/09/dakota-access-pipeline-leak-energy-transfer-partners/.

Cozzetto, Chief, Dittmer, Brubaker, Gough, Souza, Ettawageshik, Wotkyns, Opitz-Stapleton, Duren, and Chavan. “Climate Change Impacts on the Water Resources of American Indians and Alaska Natives in the U.S.” Climatic Change120, no. 3 (2013): 569-84. 

“Dakota Access Pipeline Facts.” Dakota Access Pipeline Facts, Energy Transfer LP , June 2019, daplpipelinefacts.com/index.html.

Dalrymple, Amy. “Dakota Access Has Increased North Dakota Tax Revenue by More than $6M a Month.” Bismarck Tribune, Lee Enterprises Inc, 10 Oct. 2017, bismarcktribune.com/news/state-and-regional/dakota-access-has-increased-north-dakota-tax-revenue-by-more/article_d6561bd2-859e-5856-8b11-dc9aea6ea621.html.

Daly , Matthew. “Trump’s Stock in Dakota Access Oil Pipeline Company Raises Concern.” Las Vegas Review Journal , 19 Feb. 2017, www.reviewjournal.com/news/nation-and-world/trumps-stock-in-dakota-access-oil-pipeline-company-raises-concern/.

DC District Court , “Standing Rock I, II, and III”, D.D.C Decisions 2016, 2017,2017, https://earthjustice.org/sites/default/files/files/DAPL-order.pdf 

Diver, Sibyl. 2018. “Native Water Protection Flows Through Self-Determination: Understanding Tribal Water Quality Standards and ‘Treatment as a State.’” Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education 163 (1): 6–30. doi:10.1111/j.1936-704X.2018.03267.x. 

Duffy, John, untitled image, “The Solidarity Grows: Over 1,200 Historians, Archaeologists, Museum Directors Denounce DAPL,” Commondreams.org, published sept 21 2016

“Encyclopedia of the Great Plains.” Edited by David J Wishart , Encyclopedia of the Great Plains | WOUNDED KNEE MASSACRE, University of Nebraska-LIncoln , 2011, plainshumanities.unl.edu/encyclopedia/doc/egp.war.056.

Ford, Algeria R. 2010. “The Myth of Tribal Sovereignty: An Analysis of Native American Tribal Status in the United States.” International Community Law Review 12 (4): 397–411. doi:10.1163/187197310X527775. 

Hudson, Myles. “Wounded Knee Massacre.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 16 Sept. 2019, www.britannica.com/event/Wounded-Knee-Massacre.

Hunter, Peg. “Local demonstrations against the Dakota Access Pipeline sparked protests in Oakland, California, and dozens of other places around the US” (image), US oil producers race to build infrastructure while nationwide protests mount, pri.org, published on June 3, 2017

Javier, Carla. “A Timeline of the Year of Resistance at Standing Rock.” Splinter, Splinter, 14 Nov. 2017, splinternews.com/a-timeline-of-the-year-of-resistance-at-standing-rock-1794269727.

Laduke, Winona. 2016. “Missouri River Threatened by DAPL.” The Circle : News from an American Indian Perspective, 09, 1-1,8. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1826402710?accountid=12299.

Miles , Jo. “Who’s Banking on the Dakota Access Pipeline?” Food & Water Watch, 31 Jan. 2017, www.foodandwaterwatch.org/news/who’s-banking-dakota-access-pipeline.

Mone, John L., “Protesting the oil pipeline at Standing Rock” (image), Water Is Life- It’s Common Cause for Standing Rock, Central Florida, The Orlando Sentinel, published Nov. 2 2016, https://www.orlandosentinel.com/opinion/os-ed-for-sioux-water-is-life-new-voices-110316-20161102-story.html

Phippen, J. Weston. “’Kill Every Buffalo You Can! Every Buffalo Dead Is an Indian Gone’.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 13 May 2016, www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2016/05/the-buffalo-killers/482349/.

Ranco, Darren, and Dean Suagee. 2007. “Tribal Sovereignty and the Problem of Difference in Environmental Regulation: Observations on ‘Measured Separatism’ in Indian Country.” Antipode 39 (4): 691–707. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8330.2007.00547.x.

Stover , Richard. “America’s Dangerous Pipelines .” Biologicaldiversity.org, The Center for Biological Diversity , www.biologicaldiversity.org/campaigns/americas_dangerous_pipelines/.

Thompson, Jonathan. “The Dakota Access Pipeline Will Simply Create Profits. Not Jobs or Energy Independence.” Slate Magazine, Slate, 30 Nov. 2016, slate.com/technology/2016/11/the-dakota-access-pipeline-will-not-create-jobs-or-energy-independence.html.

“TRUMP ISSUES EXEC. ORDER ALLOWING DAPL TO PROCEED.” 2017.The Circle : News from an American Indian Perspective, 02, 2-3. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1868512074?accountid=12299.

US Army Corps of Engineers, “Final Environmental Assessment of the Dakota Access Pipeline Project”, Mitigated Finding of No Significant Impact, published 2015,

Wild, Ricey. 2018. “It Ain’t Easy being Indian..” News from Indian Country, 08, 13. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/2102353239?accountid=12299.


[1] Aleszu Bajak, “Contextualizing the Dakota Access Pipeline: A Roundup of Visualizations.” Storybench, Northeastern University , 26 Apr. 2017, www.storybench.org/contextualizing-dakota-access-pipeline-roundup-visualizations/.

[2] Carla Javier, “A Timeline of the Year of Resistance at Standing Rock.” Splinter, Splinter, 14 Nov. 2017, splinternews.com/a-timeline-of-the-year-of-resistance-at-standing-rock-1794269727.

[3] US Army Corps of Engineers, “Final Environmental Assessment of the Dakota Access Pipeline Project”, Mitigated Finding of No Significant Impact, 

[4] DC District Court Cases , “Standing Rock I, II, and III”,

[5] Laduke, Winona. 2016. “Missouri River Threatened by DAPL.” The Circle : News from an American Indian Perspective, 09, 1-1,8. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1826402710?accountid=12299.

[6] John L. Mone, “Protesting the oil pipeline at Standing Rock” (image), Water Is Life- It’s Common Cause for Standing Rock, Central Florida, The Orlando Sentinel, published Nov. 2 2016, https://www.orlandosentinel.com/opinion/os-ed-for-sioux-water-is-life-new-voices-110316-20161102-story.html

[7] Laduke, Winona. 2016. “Missouri River Threatened by DAPL.” The Circle : News from an American Indian Perspective, 09, 1-1,8. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1826402710?accountid=12299.

[8] Bender, Albert. 2016. “Standing Rock Organizer Speaks Out.” News from Indian Country, 09, 2. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1824544484?accountid=12299.

[9] Carla Javier, “A Timeline of the Year of Resistance at Standing Rock.” Splinter, Splinter, 14 Nov. 2017, splinternews.com/a-timeline-of-the-year-of-resistance-at-standing-rock-1794269727.

[10] Nantinki Young, Head Chef of Standing Rock,  speaking to Fusion about the campsites, 

[11] Bowsell, Tom. 2016. “At Standing Rock for Mother Earth.” News from Indian Country, 12, 11-11,14. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1856560465?accountid=12299.

[12] Laduke, Winona. 2016. “Missouri River Threatened by DAPL.” The Circle : News from an American Indian Perspective, 09, 1-1,8.

[13] @AlexR_DC on Twitter, “Indigenous Sovereignty Protects the Land and Water” (image), #NoDAPL protest and #March4Trump rallies meet outside Trump Tower, rt.com, published March 4 2017 https://www.rt.com/usa/379458-dapl-protest-march4trump-trump-new-york/.

[14] Alleen Brown, “Five Spills, Six Months in Operation: Dakota Access Track Record Highlights Unavoidable Reality – Pipelines Leak.” The Intercept, First Look Media , 9 Jan. 2018, theintercept.com/2018/01/09/dakota-access-pipeline-leak-energy-transfer-partners/

[15]Wild, Ricey. 2018. “It Ain’t Easy being Indian..” News from Indian Country, 08, 13. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/2102353239?accountid=12299.

[16]  Myles Hudson, “Wounded Knee Massacre.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 16 Sept. 2019, www.britannica.com/event/Wounded-Knee-Massacre.

[17]“Black Hills Gold Rush .” Newberry Library: Lewis and Clark Exhibit, publications.newberry.org/lewisandclark/newnation/miners/blackhills.html

[18] J. Weston Phippen, “’Kill Every Buffalo You Can! Every Buffalo Dead Is an Indian Gone’.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 13 May 2016, www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2016/05/the-buffalo-killers/482349/.

[19] “Encyclopedia of the Great Plains.” Edited by David J Wishart , Encyclopedia of the Great Plains | WOUNDED KNEE MASSACRE, University of Nebraska-LIncoln , 2011, plainshumanities.unl.edu/encyclopedia/doc/egp.war.056

[20] Laduke, Winona. 2016. “Missouri River Threatened by DAPL.” The Circle : News from an American Indian Perspective, 09, 1-1,8.

[21] Ranco, Darren, and Dean Suagee. 2007. “Tribal Sovereignty and the Problem of Difference in Environmental Regulation: Observations on ‘Measured Separatism’ in Indian Country.” Antipode 39 (4): 691–707. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8330.2007.00547.x.

[22] Ford, Algeria R. 2010. “The Myth of Tribal Sovereignty: An Analysis of Native American Tribal Status in the United States.” International Community Law Review 12 (4): 397–411. doi:10.1163/187197310X527775.

[23] Diver, Sibyl. 2018. “Native Water Protection Flows Through Self-Determination: Understanding Tribal Water Quality Standards and ‘Treatment as a State.’” Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education 163 (1): 6–30. doi:10.1111/j.1936-704X.2018.03267.x.

[24] Jonathan Thompson, “The Dakota Access Pipeline Will Simply Create Profits. Not Jobs or Energy Independence.” Slate Magazine, Slate, 30 Nov. 2016, slate.com/technology/2016/11/the-dakota-access-pipeline-will-not-create-jobs-or-energy-independence.html.

[25] “Dakota Access Pipeline Facts.” Dakota Access Pipeline Facts, Energy Transfer LP , June 2019, daplpipelinefacts.com/index.html

[26] Jo Miles, “Who’s Banking on the Dakota Access Pipeline?” Food & Water Watch, 31 Jan. 2017, www.foodandwaterwatch.org/news/who’s-banking-dakota-access-pipeline.

[27] Matthew Daly, “Trump’s Stock in Dakota Access Oil Pipeline Company Raises Concern.” Las Vegas Review Journal , 19 Feb. 2017, www.reviewjournal.com/news/nation-and-world/trumps-stock-in-dakota-access-oil-pipeline-company-raises-concern/.

[28] Amy Dalrymple, “Dakota Access Has Increased North Dakota Tax Revenue by More than $6M a Month.” Bismarck Tribune, Lee Enterprises Inc, 10 Oct. 2017, bismarcktribune.com/news/state-and-regional/dakota-access-has-increased-north-dakota-tax-revenue-by-more/article_d6561bd2-859e-5856-8b11-dc9aea6ea621.html.

[29] Bowsell, Tom. 2016. “At Standing Rock for Mother Earth.” News from Indian Country, 12, 11-11,14. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1856560465?accountid=12299.

[30] Richard Stover, “America’s Dangerous Pipelines .” Biologicaldiversity.org, The Center for Biological Diversity , www.biologicaldiversity.org/campaigns/americas_dangerous_pipelines/.

[31] “Dakota Access Pipeline Facts.” Dakota Access Pipeline Facts, Energy Transfer LP , June 2019, daplpipelinefacts.com/index.html.

[32] Alleen Brown, “Five Spills, Six Months in Operation: Dakota Access Track Record Highlights Unavoidable Reality – Pipelines Leak.” The Intercept, First Look Media , 9 Jan. 2018, theintercept.com/2018/01/09/dakota-access-pipeline-leak-energy-transfer-partners/

[33] Laduke, Winona. 2016. “Missouri River Threatened by DAPL.” The Circle : News from an American Indian Perspective, 09, 1-1,8.

[34] Bowsell, Tom. 2016. “At Standing Rock for Mother Earth.” News from Indian Country, 12, 11-11,14. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1856560465?accountid=12299.

[35] John Duffy, untitled image, “The Solidarity Grows: Over 1,200 Historians, Archaeologists, Museum Directors Denounce DAPL,” Commondreams.org, published sept 21 2016

[36] Cozzetto, Chief, Dittmer, Brubaker, Gough, Souza, Ettawageshik, Wotkyns, Opitz-Stapleton, Duren, and Chavan. “Climate Change Impacts on the Water Resources of American Indians and Alaska Natives in the U.S.” Climatic Change120, no. 3 (2013): 569-84. 

[37] Laduke, Winona. 2016. “Missouri River Threatened by DAPL.” The Circle : News from an American Indian Perspective, 09, 1-1,8.

[38] Peg Hunter, “Local demonstrations against the Dakota Access Pipeline sparked protests in Oakland, California, and dozens of other places around the US” (image), US oil producers race to build infrastructure while nationwide protests mount, pri.org, published on June 3, 2017